Cervical Fibroid: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 


According to the definition, a cervical fibroid is a benign (non-cancerous) growth made up of muscle tissues inside the uterine wall, also known as a leiomyoma or myeloma. While Virchow, the prestigious German Pathologist, established that such tumors came from the uterine smooth muscle, it was first proposed by Rokitansky (1860) and Klob (1863). During the reproductive years, this disease is frequently observed, especially in the top region of the uterus. 

Around 25% of females of reproductive age are diagnosed with leiomyomas around the world.  This fibroid varies in size. A large cervical fibroid may obstruct the flow of urine and cause discomfort for patients.

cervical fibroid

Types Of Cervical Fibroids

According to their location and manner of attachment, uterine fibroids can be categorized into many categories. Uterine fibroids can take the following specific forms:

Risk Factors

There are varieties of risk factors for cervical fibroid, like :


The exact cause of uterine fibroids is not known, but studies have shown that fibroids are linked with a high level of the hormone estrogen, especially in reproductive age. 


Most of the women are asymptomatic, which could be due to the small size of the fibroid. However, if the fibroid is large, it can cause a lot of discomfort for the patient and interfere with her daily lifestyle.

Some of the symptoms are mentioned below

1.Abnormal vaginal bleeding 

There could be normal vaginal bleeding in the cervical fibroid, which could cause anemia. 

2. Pelvic pain 

This could be due to the increase in the size of the cervical fibroid. The pain could be a dull and aching type of pain.

3. Painful intercourse 

Painful intercourse or dyspareunia could be felt in the upper part of the vagina, pelvis, or thighs. After intercourse, this type of pain could last for 4-5 hours. 

4. Anaemia 

Because of the abnormal vaginal bleeding, there is a loss of blood. Anaemia could also lead to iron deficiency. 

5. Vaginal discharge 

To some extent, vaginal discharge is also seen. The vaginal discharge could be both offensive and non-offensive. If the vaginal discharge is offensive, it could be a sign of a urinary tract infection. 

6. Dysuria 

Dysuria means pain during micturition; it could be due to uterine fibroids or urinary tract infections caused by uterine fibroids.

7. Urinary tract infection 

The tendency for urinary tract infections increases with conditions like uterine fibroids. This is usually because you have fibroids that block the flow of urine and this causes a backflow, which, in turn, creates an environment for the bacteria  inside the body, leading to urinary tract infections

8. Sensation of heaviness

If the uterine fibroid is huge, then it could cause a feeling of discomfort or heaviness. 



our position may ask you for signs and symptoms of your condition. A detailed case history will be taken. However, to confirm the diagnosis, the doctor may ask to run some tests on you to confirm the condition.

1.Blood test

To determine whether you have anemia due to chronic blood loss or to rule out any other underlying condition.

2 Ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis

To map and assess fibroids as well as confirm the diagnosis, it uses sound waves to create a picture of your uterus.

3.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

To understand the size and location of the fibroid. MRIs become more important for women who are reaching menopause.


This test expands the uterine cavity with sterile salt water (saline), allowing women who are attempting to get pregnant or who are experiencing heavy bleeding every month to  conveniently capture additional images of submucosal fibroids and the lining of the uterus.

5. Transvaginal ultrasonography

An examination of a woman’s uterus, ovaries, tubes, cervix, and pelvic region is done using transvaginal ultrasonography.

6. Laparoscopy 

Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure where the physician needs access to the inside of the abdomen without a major, invasive surgical procedure.

7. Computed tomography

This is not an accurate test, but sometimes it can detect calcified uterine fibroids.


If the size of the fibroid is asymptomatic or small, the doctor may keep you under close observation, and you may not require surgical intervention. However, if the size of the fibroid is large, you may require medications or surgical treatment if needed. 

When the surgery takes place, there are certain factors that the physician may rely on, which are stated below: 

All these factors are considered highly important when performing surgery. 

Surgical treatment includes 


This is a type of gynecological surgery where the removal of leiomyomas or cervical fibroids becomes necessary to preserve the uterus. 

Total hysterectomy 

Total hysterectomy means complete removal of the uterus. This type of surgery is done when a woman no longer wants to get pregnant.

Uterine artery embolization 

This is one of the types of gynecological surgery where the blood supply to the fibroid is cut off. This results in the shrinking of the fibroid.

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