Diagnosis of Congenital Uterine Anomalies

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 


It is truly said that women are a masterpiece made by god, for a woman nurtures a life inside her body in the womb and brings it to this world. But have you ever wondered how a baby grows inside the body of a woman?

diagnosis of Congenital uterine abnormalities

A woman bears an organ called a ‘Uterus’ where the fetus grows until it is born. It is a hollow muscular organ that is pear-shaped. It is located in the lower belly, i.e., the pelvic region in between the rectum and the bladder. A uterus is the size of a fist but grows a baby that generally weighs around 3 kilograms during birth. The muscles of the uterus are so strong that they extend hard to accommodate a baby inside it. Isn’t it amazing? The diagnosis of congenital uterine abnormalities is typically confirmed through imaging techniques like ultrasound or MRI, along with clinical evaluation by a healthcare provider.

Structure of a normal uterus

It is divided into three regions:

A uterus has two fallopian tubes connected on both sides that open externally with finger-like projections called ‘fimbriae’ that serve as a path for an egg to travel to the uterus from the ovaries. A sperm fertilizes the egg inside the fallopian tube, and then the embryo travels to the
uterus for implantation in the endometrium.

But there are instances when this normal structure of the uterus is disturbed, resulting in malformations known as ‘Uterine anomalies’ that are present right from birth and are termed as ‘Congenital uterine anomalies.’ Patients suffering from congenital anomalies of the uterus do not generally present any symptoms unless they have conceived or are unable to conceive. Hence, the diagnosis of congenital uterine malformations can be accidental. However, the diagnosis of congenital uterine abnormalities is essential. These anomalies may occur due to various reasons like the formation, fusion, and dissolution of Mullerian ducts. Hence, these are also known as congenital mullerian anomalies.

 Let us go into the details of the formation of female reproductive organs to study the role of Mullerian ducts in causing congenital uterine malformations.

Know How A Female Reproductive System Is Formed

Types Of Uterine Abnormalities

Let us discuss all the uterine abnormality types in detail:




Symptoms Of Congenital Uterine Abnormalities

Many women don’t realize that they have an abnormal uterus until they present any gynecological issues and they undergo a diagnosis of congenital uterine abnormalities.

Some of the common symptoms of uterine anomalies include;

It is essential to see a gynecologist if you have any of the above-mentioned symptoms. The doctor will rule out the problem and give you the proper treatment.

Diagnosis Of Congenital Uterine Abnormalities

2D or 3D ultrasound is the most commonly used technique for the diagnosis of congenital uterine abnormalities. Other than these, MRI, hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography, X-ray hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, and laparoscopy are some of the other methods used to rule out a uterine anomaly.

Let us discuss in detail the diagnostic methods

2 Dimensional ultrasound

3 Dimensional ultrasound

Magnetic Resonance Imaging


X-ray Hysterosalpingography



A diagnostic method is chosen based on the symptoms the patient presents and the opinion of the gynecologist.

Treatment of congenital uterine abnormalities

Surgery is the only way to treat congenital uterine anomalies. Laparoscopies are performed to minimize the risk of infections. In the case of a septate uterus, the septum is surgically removed to let the uterus retain its normal shape.


The uterus is a childbearing organ in the female reproductive system. In some cases, the normal uterine structure is disturbed as the Mullerian ducts do not work well, forming malformations at birth referred to as congenital uterine malformations. These can be medically
termed Congenital Mullerian anomalies. 

There are a lot of women facing infertility and wish to experience the joy of being a mother. Congenital uterine malformations can be a hindrance to motherhood for many women, and it is necessary to see a gynecologist to rule out the cause. Additionally, many women face issues with carrying the fetus for the whole nine months. Even though they conceive, they cannot deliver a full-term baby. The most commonly faced problem is preterm labor, wherein there is no space for the fetus to grow inside the womb, resulting in delivering the baby before the estimated due date.

With the advancements in medical technology, diagnosis of congenital uterine abnormalities has become easier. Your gynecologist rules out the reason behind your bad obstetrics history or the infertility issues that you are facing. Your doctor gives you the best available treatment to give you the joy of parenthood.

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