Gynecological cancer symptoms and causes

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 


A woman is a life-giver, nurturer, and caregiver but never a caretaker when it comes to her health. ‘Gynecological ‘means diseases related to a woman’s reproductive system, and ‘Cancer ‘means abnormal growth of cells. The symptoms of gynecological cancer differ with the different types of cancer; abnormal bleeding during or after periods is one of the most common symptoms. HPV infections, smoking, AIDS, etc., have been linked to these gynecological cancers.

Gynecological Cancer

Gynecological cancers are cancers of an organ in a woman’s reproductive system. The reproductive system consists of organs and parts of the body that work together for the formation of a new life. The uterus (womb), cervix (mouth of the uterus), ovaries (egg-producing organs), fallopian tubes (tube connecting the ovaries and the uterus), vagina (tube connecting the genitals and the cervix), and vulva (external female genitals) are all parts of the female reproductive system.

Gynecological Cancer Causes

Gynecological cancer causes are being overweight, being over 50 years old, having a family history, having a high-fat diet, having diabetes, having multiple sexual partners, weak immunity, and having sex at an early age. Other sexually transmitted infections, never being pregnant, smoking, HPV infection, Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (changes in the cellular lining of the vagina), a history of genital bumps or growths called warts, lichen sclerosis (a disease of the skin of the vulva), the beginning of periods before 12 years of age, and hormonal therapy after menopause are also the causes of gynecological cancer.

Types and gynecological cancer symptoms

Uterine cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer are the types of gynecological cancers. Fallopian tube cancer is considered the sixth type, which is very rare. Here is the list of gynecological cancer symptoms.

Tests for detecting gynecological cancers.

Most gynecological cancer symptoms don’t show early, so it is necessary to get your annual checkup done by your doctor. The following examinations or tests are done by the doctor:

Preventive measures

HPV vaccine should be taken at the correct age, as HPV infections are one of the main causative agents of cervical cancer. As the HPV vaccine does not give 100 % protection from infections, pap tests should be done regularly for early cancer detection. Obesity is one of the risk factors for gynecological cancer, so adopting a healthy diet and lifestyle aids in weight loss and thus prevents the risk. Women with a family history of gynecological cancer should consult a doctor regularly.

Treatment options

Surgical removal of a part or an organ of the body is the best treatment option if cancer has started in that organ. Chemotherapy involves treating cancer cells with chemicals in the form of drugs. Radiation therapy is a method in which powerful radiation is used to kill cancer cells. Hormone therapy is used to lower some particular hormones on which cancer cell growth is dependent. There is also supportive or palliative care in which the doctors treat the other problems a cancer patient is suffering from, like pain, depression, etc.


A report saying cancer is positive can feel like the end of life, but with early detection and treatments, cancers can be treated completely. Gynecological cancers are the most common but least talked about cancers. Women need to be aware and active in getting the tests, treatments, and follow-ups.

Frequently Asked Questions

Yes, they can affect fertility. Consult a doctor and get treatment as soon as possible.

They are the doctors who are specialists in treating these types of cancers, and they can treat them in the best way possible. They can also provide guidance and suggest ways to prevent these cancers more effectively.

Some sanitary napkins are made using harmful chemicals, which can pose a problem as they promote the growth of cancer cells, reduce the immunity of the body, and, with prolonged use, can cause bacteria and yeast infections. To prevent these side effects, change the sanitary napkins more frequently. Other alternatives like period pants and menstrual cups can also be used.

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