Pcos- causes, symptoms, signs ,diagnosis and treatment

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 


PCOS is a condition that affects only females. It affects how female ovaries function. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a condition wherein the ovaries produce a strange measure of androgens, male sex hormones that are generally present in females in limited quantities.The numerous small cysts (fluid-filled sacs) that develop in the ovaries are what give the condition its name, polycystic ovary syndrome. At the point when a mature egg is released by any of the one ovaries. It occurs to increase the likelihood of fertilization. And when fertilization doesn’t happen then the egg is taken out of the body which is named the bleeding stage. At times, a lady doesn’t make enough of the hormones required to ovulate.


Numerous small cysts can be formed in the ovaries if ovulation is missed. Androgens are the hormones produced by these cysts. Androgen levels are generally high in PCOS women. A woman’s menstrual cycle may experience additional issues as a result of this. Additionally, it may trigger numerous PCOS symptoms.It is seen that some women with this disorder do not develop cysts, while others with the disorder do develop cysts. Ovulation occurs on the fourteenth day of the period.

What causes it?

There is no known cause for PCOS. High levels of male hormones are thought to prevent the ovaries from producing hormones and eggs normally. Excessive androgen production has been linked to genes, insulin resistance, and inflammation.

Common signs and symptoms of PCOS

A few females start seeing symptoms around the time of their first period. Others find out they have PCOS vonly after they have gained a lot of weight or had trouble getting pregnant.

PCOS is a “disorder” or group of symptoms that influences the ovaries and ovulation. Its three primary highlights are:

Other most normal PCOS side effects are

How does PCOS diagnosis work?

There is no single test for PCOS diagnosis. Your doctor may ask you questions about your medical history and conduct a physical exam and other tests to assist in the diagnosis of PCOS and rule out other potential causes of your symptoms:

Actual test: Your PCP will quantify your pulse, weight list (BMI), and abdomen size. They will also check your skin for acne, discoloration, excess hair on your face, chest, or back, and other conditions. Your doctor might look for signs of hair loss or other health problems (like an overactive thyroid).

Examination of the pelvis: A pelvic examination may be performed by your doctor to check for signs of excess male hormones, such as an enlarged clitoris, and to see if your ovaries are swollen or enlarged.

Ultrasound of the pelvis Sound waves is used in this test to look for cysts in your ovaries and check the endometrium, which is the lining of the uterus or womb. Blood tests. Your levels of androgen hormone, also known as “male hormones”nare measured through blood tests.
Your primary care physician will likewise check for different chemicals connected with other normal medical issues that can be confused with PCOS, like thyroid infection. Your PCP may likewise test your cholesterol levels and test you for diabetes.

When different circumstances are precluded, you might be determined to have PCOS assuming that you have somewhere around two of the accompanying symptoms:

Sporadic periods, including periods that come over and over again, not frequently enough, or not the slightest bit 

Signs that you have elevated degrees of androgens:


Treatment for PCOS

Diet and Way of life tips for PCOS treatment Treatment for PCOS typically begins with a way of life changes like weight reduction,
diet, and exercise.

Losing only 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can assist with controlling your period and further develop PCOS symptoms. Weight reduction can likewise help in further developing cholesterol levels, bringing down insulin, and lessening coronary illness and diabetes gambles.
It is seen that females consuming fewer calories for PCOS have found that low sugar levels are powerful for both weight reduction and bringing down insulin levels.

A diet with a low glycemic index (GI) and the majority of carbohydrates coming from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains works better to regulate the menstrual cycle than a regular diet for weight loss.

A couple of investigations have discovered that 30 minutes of moderate-power practice no less than 3 days seven days can assist ladies with PCOS to get fitter. Ovulation and insulin levels also improve when you exercise to lose weight.

Practice is considerably more gainful when joined with a sound eating regimen. You can lower your risk of diabetes and heart disease and lose more weight with diet and exercise combined than with either intervention on its own.

Although more research is required, there is some evidence that acupuncture can assist with PCOS improvement.

The menstrual cycle can be controlled and PCOS symptoms like acne and hair growth can be treated with birth control pills and other medications.

Conception prevention

Taking progestin every day can:


These chemicals arrive in a pill, fix, or vaginal ring. Metformin, also known as Glucophage or Fortamet, is a diabetes medication.
Furthermore, it treats PCOS by raising insulin levels.

According to one study, taking metformin with diet and exercise improves weight loss, lowers blood sugar, and restores a normal menstrual cycle more effectively than doing neither.

Clomiphene (Clomid) is a fertility medication that can assist PCOS women in becoming pregnant.

When discussing family planning, it is essential to keep in mind that clomiphene increases the likelihood of twins and other multiple births.

Medication for hair removal There are a few treatments that can help get rid of unwanted hair or prevent it from growing.
Eflornithine (Vaniqa) cream is a physician-endorsed drug that eases back hair development.

Surgical procedures

Medical procedures can be a choice to further develop fruitfulness if different therapies don’t work. Ovarian penetrating is a methodology that makes little openings in the ovary with a laser or flimsy, warmed needle to reestablish typical ovulation.

Surgical choices include:

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