Urinary Tract Infection(UTI) : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 


A urinary tract infection, often known as a UTI, is an infection that affects any portion of your urinary system, including your kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. Women are more likely than men to have a urinary tract infection. According to some doctors, your lifetime chance of developing one is as high as one in two, with many women experiencing recurring infections, often for years. One in every ten males will have a UTI over their lives. 

Let’s see the frequently: What exactly is a urinary tract infection? What are the causes of UTIs and UI? What symptoms indicate a urinary tract infection? How can you determine whether you have a UTI? Which kind of treatment is best for urinary tract infections?

What exactly is a urinary tract infection?

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection of the urinary tract. This form of illness may affect you:

    1. Urine (urethritis).
    2. Kidney disease (pyelonephritis).
    3. Bladder infection (cystitis).

Urine (pee) is a byproduct of your blood-filtering mechanism, which is carried out by your kidneys. When your kidneys eliminate waste items and extra water from your blood, they produce urine. Pee passes typically through your urinary system uncontaminated. However, germs can enter your urinary system and cause UTIs.

    1. UTIs are quite frequent, particularly in women and those who were designated female at birth (AFAB). Approximately 20% of persons with AFAB will get a UTI at some time in their life. 
    2. UTIs can afflict men and persons assigned male at birth (AMAB), as well as children, albeit they only affect 1% to 2% of children. Every year, healthcare practitioners treat 8 million to 10 million patients for UTIs.

What are the causes of UTIs?

More than 90% of bladder infections are caused by E. coli. E.coli is most commonly seen in the lower intestines (large intestine).

Organisms that cause UTIs are 


Escherichia coli

    1. Klebsiella pneumoniae
    2.  Proteus mirabilis
    3. Enterococcus faecalis and 
    4. Staphylococcus saprophyticus


Herpes simplex virus





The following elements may also promote bacterial growth:

urinary tract infection symptoms

What symptoms indicate a urinary tract infection?

Lower UTIs in adults damage the bladder or urethra and can result in:

Upper UTIs have an impact on the kidneys and ureters. In addition to the symptoms listed above, they can cause:

How can you determine whether you have a UTI?

If you experience signs of a urinary tract infection, consult your doctor. They’ll ask you questions about your symptoms, go over your medical history, and perform a physical exam. They can also request testing to confirm a diagnosis.

Which kind of treatment is best for urinary tract infections?

1. Antibiotics are typically the first line of defense against urinary tract infections. The kind of medicine used and the type of bacteria identified in your urine dictate which medicine is used and how long you must take it. 

The following medications are typically used to treat uncomplicated UTIs:

– Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim and Bactrim DS) are antibiotics.
– Monurol (Fosfomycin)
– Nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin, Macrobid, and Furadantin) is a kind of antibiotic.
– Cephalexin
– Ceftriaxone

2.Cranberry juice is frequently touted as a way to prevent or cure UTIs. The tannin in the red berry may inhibit E. coli bacteria, the most frequent cause of urinary tract infections, from adhering to the walls of your bladder, where they can cause infection. However, research has shown that it does not significantly prevent infections.

3.Vaccines and immune-boosting medications, as well as hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, are used as novel treatments for UTIs.

Can I prevent a urinary tract infection?


UTIs are mainly caused by organisms such as Ecoil bacteria, which have symptoms such as frequent urination, a burning sensation while urinating and feeling ill. The person who has the above-mentioned symptoms is basically treated with antibiotic medication by doctors.

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