Infertility Tests for Females

Medically Reviewed by Dr K. Hari Chandana MBBS, MS 

Infertility Tests for Females:  When assessing female infertility, various tests and evaluations may be conducted to identify potential causes or contributing factors. Here are some common tests used to evaluate female fertility:

Medical history and physical examination:

A detailed medical history interview, including menstrual history, sexual history, past pregnancies, surgeries, and any relevant symptoms, helps provide valuable information. A physical examination may involve a pelvic examination to evaluate the reproductive organs and identify any visible abnormalities.

Ovulation tracking:

Methods such as tracking menstrual cycles, monitoring basal body temperature, and using ovulation predictor kits can help determine if ovulation is occurring regularly.

infertility test for females

Hormone testing:

Hormone testing plays a vital role in assessing infertility in women. It helps to evaluate the function of the reproductive system, identify hormonal imbalances, and determine potential causes of infertility. Here are some of the key hormones commonly tested in women undergoing infertility evaluations:

Ovarian reserve testing

Ovarian reserve testing is an important component of female infertility evaluations. It helps to assess the quantity and quality of a woman’s remaining eggs (oocytes) and indicates her reproductive potential. Here are some common methods used to test ovarian reserve:

Hysterosalpingography (HSG):

Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a diagnostic test performed on women to evaluate the structure and patency of the fallopian tubes and the shape of the uterine cavity. It is commonly used in infertility evaluations to assess potential causes of fertility issues. 

 Here’s an overview of the HSG test:

Procedure: During an HSG, a contrast agent (usually a radiopaque dye) is injected into the uterus through the cervix. The dye fills the uterus and then flows into the fallopian tubes. X-ray images are taken while the contrast is flowing, allowing visualization of the shape, size, and condition of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes.

Purpose of using HSG:

Transvaginal ultrasound:

Ultrasound imaging can help evaluate the uterus, ovaries, and follicle development, as well as detect any structural abnormalities or conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).


In some cases, a minimally invasive surgical procedure called laparoscopy is performed to directly visualize the reproductive organs and identify conditions like endometriosis, adhesions, or ovarian cysts.

Genetic testing:

Genetic testing is recommended if there is a family history of genetic disorders or if certain genetic conditions are suspected.

Endometrial biopsy:

This test involves taking a small sample of the uterine lining to evaluate the thickness, receptivity, and presence of any abnormalities.

It’s important to note that not all tests are performed for every individual, and the specific tests recommended will depend on the patient’s history, symptoms, and initial evaluations. A fertility specialist or reproductive endocrinologist will assess the situation, determine the appropriate tests, and guide individuals through the diagnostic process.

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